What Evidence Is There That Mitochondria Evolved Before Chloroplasts?

Do eukaryotic cells have mitochondria and chloroplasts?

Mitochondria and chloroplast are two organelles found in eukaryotic cells.

Chloroplast is only found in plants while majority of eukaryotic cells have mitochondria.

Even though both organelles are found in eukaryotic cells, both mitochondria and chloroplast have characteristics often found in prokaryotic cells..

Which of the following is a characteristic of chloroplast but not mitochondria?

* Chloroplasts but not mitochondria are completely independent of the cell of which they are a part. Chloroplasts and mitochondria synthesize some of their own proteins. * They all contain DNA and make some of their own proteins. * They all contain two or more membranes.

Why do chloroplasts and mitochondria have double membranes?

The double membrane found in mitochondria and chloroplasts appears to be a relic of the absorption of the prokaryotic bacteria by the eukaryotic host cells. The inner membrane, which now contains numerous folds, apparently came from the bacterial membrane, while the outer membrane came from the host cell itself.

What evidence supports the evolution of chloroplasts and mitochondria from prokaryotic cells?

The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear.

Which of the following is are possible sites of protein synthesis?

The mRNA molecules exported from the nucleus are translated into protein in the cytoplasm by the ribosomes (which are RNA-protein complexes, not organelles).

Why did mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts likely evolved from engulfed prokaryotes that once lived as independent organisms. At some point, a eukaryotic cell engulfed an aerobic prokaryote, which then formed an endosymbiotic relationship with the host eukaryote, gradually developing into a mitochondrion.

Which is the evidence that mitochondria were incorporated into the ancestral eukaryotic cell before chloroplasts?

The evidence that mitochondria were incorporated much before chloroplasts in the ancestral eukaryotes is that while mitochondria are found in all the eukaryotes chloroplast is found only in green plants that are capable of producing their own food by photosynthesis.

Which type of cell is most likely to have the largest number of mitochondria?

muscle cellsIt’s commonly believed that it’s muscle cells that have the largest amount of mitochondria, and for good reason. Muscle cells are continually used to move the body, so they have the most mitochondria because of the large energy requirement.

How does oxygen get into or out of chloroplasts and mitochondria?

oxygen is important in the reactions of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. How does oxygen get into or out of the chloroplasts and mitochondria? … The inner membrane of the mitochondria is folded; these folds are called cristae.

What evidence suggests that mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts?

What evidence suggests that mitochondria might have evolved before chloroplasts? Almost all eukaryotes have mitochondria but only some cells have chloroplasts. The earliest cells detectable in fossils were different from the cells in animals, plants, fungi, and protists living today.

How were mitochondria most likely acquired?

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Can mitochondria and chloroplasts live independently?

Despite their many similarities, mitochondria (and chloroplasts) aren’t free-living bacteria anymore. The first eukaryotic cell evolved more than a billion years ago. Since then, these organelles have become completely dependent on their host cells.

Do mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA?

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA and ribosomes. … In a second endosymbiotic event, the early eukaryote consumed photosynthetic bacteria that evolved into chloroplasts.”

What is the evidence of Endosymbiotic theory?

There is broad evidence to show that mitochondria and plastids arose from bacteria and one of the strongest arguments to support the endosymbiotic theory is that both mitochondria and plastids contain DNA that is different from that of the cell nucleus and that they have their own protein biosynthesis machinery.

Which is not evidence for the Endosymbiotic origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts?

“The exterior structure similar to bacterial cell walls” IS NOT an evidence in favour of the endosymbiotic theory. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are double membrane bound.

Do eukaryotic cells have mitochondria?

In addition to the nucleus, eukaryotic cells may contain several other types of organelles, which may include mitochondria, chloroplasts, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. Each of these organelles performs a specific function critical to the cell’s survival.

Why does the mitochondria have two membranes?

As previously mentioned, mitochondria contain two major membranes. The outer mitochondrial membrane fully surrounds the inner membrane, with a small intermembrane space in between. The outer membrane has many protein-based pores that are big enough to allow the passage of ions and molecules as large as a small protein.

What are two pieces of evidence that support the Endosymbiotic theory?

The first piece of evidence that needed to be found to support the endosymbiotic hypothesis was whether or not mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and if this DNA is similar to bacterial DNA. This was later proven to be true for DNA, RNA, ribosomes, chlorophyll (for chloroplasts), and protein synthesis.

Do all eukaryotes and prokaryotes contain linear DNA?

In eukaryotic cells, chromatin consists of all the DNA within the nucleus and its associated proteins, called histones….Eukaryotic chromosome.Eukaryotic ChromosomeProkaryotic ChromosomeShapeLinearCircularSizeLargeSmallNumberMultipleSingle2 more rows

What do mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in size and features to prokaryotes. … Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, produce energy for plant cells. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own circular DNA and can function independently of the eukaryotic host cell.

Why does Mitochondria have its own DNA?

Description. Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. … Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation …